Encyclopedia of the Caucasus (2 Volume Book)
Description: This book presents important research on the Caucasus regions. Topics discussed herein include a country profile on Georgia; the Russia-Georgia conflict; Russian airborne forces; democratization and instability in Ukraine, Georgia and Belarus; political developments and the implications for U.S. interests in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia; country profiles of Armenia and Azerbaijan; and Russia's counterinsurgency in North Caucasus.
Contents: Intro;ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE CAUCASUS (2 VOLUME BOOK) VOLUME;ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE CAUCASUS (2 VOLUME BOOK) VOLUME;Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data;CONTENTS;PREFACE;Chapter 1 GEORGIA COUNTRY PROFILE;GEOGRAPHY;PEOPLE;GOVERNMENT;ECONOMY;PEOPLE AND HISTORY;GOVERNMENT;Principal Government Officials;POLITICAL CONDITIONS;ECONOMY;FOREIGN RELATIONS;U.S.-GEORGIA RELATIONS;U.S. Assistance to Georgia;Chapter 2 2011 COUNTRY REPORTS ON HUMAN RIGHTS PRACTICES-GEORGIA;INTRODUCTION;EXECUTIVE SUMMARY;SECTION 1. RESPECT FOR THE INTEGRITY OF THE PERSON, INCLUDING FREEDOM FROM;a. Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life;b. Disappearance;c. Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment;Prison and Detention Center Conditions;d. Arbitrary Arrest or Detention;Role of the Police and Security Apparatus;Arrest Procedures and Treatment While in Detention;e. Denial of Fair Public Trial;Trial Procedures;Political Prisoners and Detainees;Regional Human Rights Court Decisions;Civil Judicial Procedures and Remedies;Property Restitution;f. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence;g. Use of Excessive Force and other Abuses in Internal Conflicts;Killings;Abductions;SECTION 2. RESPECT FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES, INCLUDING;a. Freedom of Speech and Press;Status of Freedom of Speech and Press;Internet Freedom;Academic Freedom and Cultural Events;b. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association;Freedom of Assembly;Freedom of Association;c. Freedom of Religion;d. Freedom of Movement, Internally Displaced Persons, Protection of Refugees, and Stateless Persons;Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs);Protection of Refugees;Stateless Persons;SECTION 3. RESPECT FOR POLITICAL RIGHTS: THE RIGHT OF CITIZENS TO CHANGE THEIR GOVERNMENT;Elections and Political Participation;SECTION 4. OFFICIAL CORRUPTION AND GOVERNMENT TRANSPARENCY;SECTION 5. GOVERNMENTAL ATTITUDE REGARDING INTERNATIONAL AND NONGOVERNMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ALLEGED VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS;SECTION 6. DISCRIMINATION, SOCIETAL ABUSES, AND TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS;Women;Children;Anti-Semitism;Trafficking in Persons;Persons with Disabilities;National/Racial/Ethnic Minorities;Societal Abuses, Discrimination, and Acts of Violence Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity;Other Societal Violence or Discrimination;SECTION 7. WORKER RIGHTS;a. Freedom of Association and the Right to Collective Bargaining;b. Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor;c. Prohibition of Child Labor and Minimum Age for Employment;d. Acceptable Conditions of Work;Chapter 3 RUSSIA-GEORGIA CONFLICT IN AUGUST 2008: CONTEXT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR U.S. INTERESTS;SUMMARY;MOST RECENT DEVELOPMENTS;BACKGROUND;RENEWED CONFLICT IN SOUTH OSSETIA;Actions in Abkhazia and Western Georgia;Ceasefire;Occupation Operations;Russia's Partial Withdrawal;Russia Recognizes the Independence of the Regions;The Follow-On Ceasefire Agreement;The Status Conference Meetings in Geneva;IMPLICATIONS FOR GEORGIA AND RUSSIA;Assessing the Causes of the Conflict;Casualties and Displaced Persons;INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE;The Stand-off on OSCE Monitoring;Other Developments in 2009;International Humanitarian and Rebuilding Assistance;US RESPONSE;US Reaction to Russia's Recognition Declaration;The US-Georgia Charter;US Assistance;Georgia and the NATO Membership Action Plan;Congressional Response;End Notes;Chapter 4 ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN THE RUSSIAN AIRBORNE FORCES: THE LESSONS OF THE GEORGIAN CONFLICT;FOREWORD;SUMMARY;INTRODUCTION;THE ESTEEMED VDV;THE VULNERABILITY TO CHANGE OF THE POST-COLD WAR AIRBORNE FORCES;CHANGES IN THE VDV PRIOR TO THE WAR WITH GEORGIA;Structure;Manning;CHANGE: THE ROLE OF THE VDV COMMANDER;Vladimir Shamanov;CHANGE AND THE WAR WITH GEORGIA;PROPOSED STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE VDV;POST-GEORGIA CHANGES IN THE VDV;Communications;Combat Vehicles;Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs);Other Equipment;Training Regimes;MANNING IN THE VDV;READINESS OF THE VDV;AIRCRAFT FOR THE VDV;Fixed-Wing;Rotary-Wing;CONCLUSION AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS;APPENDIX: FORMATIONS AND UNITS IN THE RUSSIAN AIRBORNE FORCES;VDV HQ (Moscow);7th Guards Air Assault (Mountain) Division;Regiments;Support Units;76th Air Assault Division;Regiments;Support Units;98th Airborne Division;Regiments;Support Units;106th Airborne Division;Regiments;Support Units;31st Separate Air Assault Brigade;Units;45th Separate Reconnaissance Regiment;ABOUT THE AUTHOR;End Notes;Chapter 5 REFORMING THE POLICE IN POST-SOVIET STATES: GEORGIA AND KYRGYZSTAN*;FOREWORD;ABOUT THE AUTHOR;SUMMARY;INTRODUCTION;WHAT CONSTITUTES POLICE REFORM;GEORGIA;The Reform;A ""Police State"";Dealing with Mass Riots;KYRGYZSTAN;Reform Programs and Authoritarian Leadership;Moving the Reform Out of the Interior Ministry;The Policeman's Dilemma;CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS;End Notes;Chapter 6 GEORGIA [REPUBLIC]: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND U.S. INTERESTS*;SUMMARY;POLITICAL BACKGROUND;The October 2012 Legislative Election;Post-Election Tensions;Human Rights;ECONOMIC CONDITIONS;Georgia and Russia's Accession to the WTO;FOREIGN POLICY AND DEFENSE;NATO and Georgia;The August 2008 Russia-Georgia Conflict;Background: Civil and Ethnic Conflict in Georgia;Developments in Abkhazia before August 2008;Developments in South Ossetia before August 2008;The August 2008 Conflict and Ceasefire Accords;Post-Conflict Developments;The European Union Monitoring Mission;The Geneva Peace Talks;The Donors' Conference;The 2009 Tagliavini Report on the Origins and Outcome of the Conflict;Georgia's Peaceful Integration Pledges;Developments in 2011-2013;U.S. RELATIONS;The U.S.-Georgia Charter;Obama Administration Initiatives;U.S. Assistance Overview;U.S. Humanitarian and Rebuilding Aid after the Russia-Georgia Conflict;U.S. Security Assistance;The 2012 National Defense Authorization Act Report on Georgia;Recent Developments;Contributions to Counter-Terrorism Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan;End Notes;Chapter 7 DEMOCRATIZATION AND INSTABILITY IN UKRAINE, GEORGIA, AND BELARUS*;FOREWORD;SUMMARY;INTRODUCTION;DEMOCRATIZATION/POLITICAL STABILITY/SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT;Democracy and Political Stability;Democracy and Economic Development;DEMOCRATIZATION IN NUMBERS;Democratization;Economic and Social Development;Political Stability;Does Public Opinion Matter?;Citizenship, Law and Rights;Representative and Accountable Government;Civil Society and Popular Participation;POLITICAL CULTURE AS AN IDENTITY CONSTRUCT;Political Culture;THREE HISTORICAL NARRATIVES;Historical Ukraine;Historical Georgia;Historical Belarus;Under the Soviet Union;Independent Ukraine;Independent Georgia;Independent Belarus;CAN DEMOCRACY LEAD TO POLITICAL STABILITY?;Ukraine;Georgia;Belarus;POLITICAL CULTURE MATTERS;Ukraine;Georgia;Belarus;DEMOCRATIZATION THROUGH ""REGIME MIMICRY"";Regime Mimicry in Ukraine;Regime Mimicry in Georgia;Regime Mimicry in Belarus;""INPUTS"" VERSUS ""OUTPUTS"";Ukraine;Georgia;Belarus;POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES;Ukraine;Georgia;Belarus;CONCLUSION;ANNEX 1. QUESTIONNAIRE;End Notes;Chapter 8 GEORGIA'S OCTOBER 2013 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION: OUTCOME AND IMPLICATIONS;SUMMARY;BACKGROUND;THE ELECTORAL CAMPAIGN;RESULTS AND ASSESSMENTS;IMPLICATIONS FOR GEORGIA;IMPLICATIONS FOR U.S. INTERESTS;End Notes;Chapter 9 ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, AND GEORGIA: POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR U.S. INTERESTS;SUMMARY;MOST RECENT DEVELOPMENTS;BACKGROUND;OVERVIEW OF U.S. POLICY CONCERNS;Regional Responses after the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on the Uni