Encyclopedia of the Caucasus (2 Volume Book)
Description: This book presents important research on the Caucasus regions. Topics discussed herein include a country profile on Georgia; the Russia-Georgia conflict; Russian airborne forces; democratization and instability in Ukraine, Georgia and Belarus; political developments and the implications for U.S. interests in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia; country profiles of Armenia and Azerbaijan; and Russia's counterinsurgency in North Caucasus.
Contents: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE CAUCASUS (2 VOLUME BOOK) VOLUME ;ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE CAUCASUS (2 VOLUME BOOK) VOLUME ;Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data;CONTENTS ;PREFACE;Chapter 1 GEORGIA COUNTRY PROFILE ;GEOGRAPHY;PEOPLE ;GOVERNMENT ;ECONOMY ;PEOPLE AND HISTORY ;GOVERNMENT ;Principal Government Officials ;POLITICAL CONDITIONS ;ECONOMY ;FOREIGN RELATIONS ;U.S.-GEORGIA RELATIONS ;U.S. Assistance to Georgia ;Chapter 2 2011 COUNTRY REPORTS ON HUMAN RIGHTS PRACTICES-GEORGIA ;INTRODUCTION ;EXECUTIVE SUMMARY;SECTION 1. RESPECT FOR THE INTEGRITY OF THE PERSON, INCLUDING FREEDOM FROM ;a. Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life ;b. Disappearance;c. Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment ;Prison and Detention Center Conditions;d. Arbitrary Arrest or Detention;Role of the Police and Security Apparatus ;Arrest Procedures and Treatment While in Detention ;e. Denial of Fair Public Trial ;Trial Procedures ;Political Prisoners and Detainees ;Regional Human Rights Court Decisions ;Civil Judicial Procedures and Remedies ;Property Restitution ;f. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence ;g. Use of Excessive Force and other Abuses in Internal Conflicts ;Killings ;Abductions ;SECTION 2. RESPECT FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES, INCLUDING ;a. Freedom of Speech and Press ;Status of Freedom of Speech and Press;Internet Freedom ;Academic Freedom and Cultural Events ;b. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association ;Freedom of Assembly ;Freedom of Association ;c. Freedom of Religion ;d. Freedom of Movement, Internally Displaced Persons, Protection of Refugees, and Stateless Persons;Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) ;Protection of Refugees ;Stateless Persons ;SECTION 3. RESPECT FOR POLITICAL RIGHTS: THE RIGHT OF CITIZENS TO CHANGE THEIR GOVERNMENT ;Elections and Political Participation ;SECTION 4. OFFICIAL CORRUPTION AND GOVERNMENT TRANSPARENCY ;SECTION 5. GOVERNMENTAL ATTITUDE REGARDING INTERNATIONAL AND NONGOVERNMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ALLEGED VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS ;SECTION 6. DISCRIMINATION, SOCIETAL ABUSES, AND TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS ;Women ;Children ;Anti-Semitism ;Trafficking in Persons ;Persons with Disabilities ;National/Racial/Ethnic Minorities ;Societal Abuses, Discrimination, and Acts of Violence Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity ;Other Societal Violence or Discrimination ;SECTION 7. WORKER RIGHTS ;a. Freedom of Association and the Right to Collective Bargaining ;b. Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor ;c. Prohibition of Child Labor and Minimum Age for Employment ;d. Acceptable Conditions of Work ;Chapter 3 RUSSIA-GEORGIA CONFLICT IN AUGUST 2008: CONTEXT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR U.S. INTERESTS ;SUMMARY ;MOST RECENT DEVELOPMENTS ;BACKGROUND ;RENEWED CONFLICT IN SOUTH OSSETIA ;Actions in Abkhazia and Western Georgia ;Ceasefire ;Occupation Operations ;Russia's Partial Withdrawal ;Russia Recognizes the Independence of the Regions ;The Follow-On Ceasefire Agreement ;The Status Conference Meetings in Geneva ;IMPLICATIONS FOR GEORGIA AND RUSSIA ;Assessing the Causes of the Conflict ;Casualties and Displaced Persons ;INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE ;The Stand-off on OSCE Monitoring ;Other Developments in 2009 ;International Humanitarian and Rebuilding Assistance ;US RESPONSE ;US Reaction to Russia's Recognition Declaration;The US-Georgia Charter ;US Assistance ;Georgia and the NATO Membership Action Plan;Congressional Response ;End Notes ;Chapter 4 ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN THE RUSSIAN AIRBORNE FORCES: THE LESSONS OF THE GEORGIAN CONFLICT ;FOREWORD ;SUMMARY ;INTRODUCTION ;THE ESTEEMED VDV;THE VULNERABILITY TO CHANGE OF THE POST-COLD WAR AIRBORNE FORCES ;CHANGES IN THE VDV PRIOR TO THE WAR WITH GEORGIA ;Structure ;Manning ;CHANGE: THE ROLE OF THE VDV COMMANDER ;Vladimir Shamanov ;CHANGE AND THE WAR WITH GEORGIA ;PROPOSED STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE VDV ;POST-GEORGIA CHANGES IN THE VDV ;Communications ;Combat Vehicles ;Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) ;Other Equipment;Training Regimes ;MANNING IN THE VDV ;READINESS OF THE VDV ;AIRCRAFT FOR THE VDV ;Fixed-Wing ;Rotary-Wing ;CONCLUSION AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS ;APPENDIX: FORMATIONS AND UNITS IN THE RUSSIAN AIRBORNE FORCES ;VDV HQ (Moscow) ;7th Guards Air Assault (Mountain) Division ;Regiments;Support Units ;76th Air Assault Division ;Regiments;Support Units ;98th Airborne Division ;Regiments ;Support Units;106th Airborne Division ;Regiments ;Support Units;31st Separate Air Assault Brigade ;Units ;45th Separate Reconnaissance Regiment ;ABOUT THE AUTHOR ;End Notes;Chapter 5 REFORMING THE POLICE IN POST-SOVIET STATES: GEORGIA AND KYRGYZSTAN*;FOREWORD ;ABOUT THE AUTHOR ;SUMMARY ;INTRODUCTION ;WHAT CONSTITUTES POLICE REFORM ;GEORGIA ;The Reform;A ""Police State"" ;Dealing with Mass Riots ;KYRGYZSTAN ;Reform Programs and Authoritarian Leadership ;Moving the Reform Out of the Interior Ministry ;The Policeman's Dilemma ;CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ;End Notes ;Chapter 6 GEORGIA [REPUBLIC]: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND U.S. INTERESTS* ;SUMMARY ;POLITICAL BACKGROUND ;The October 2012 Legislative Election ;Post-Election Tensions ;Human Rights ;ECONOMIC CONDITIONS ;Georgia and Russia's Accession to the WTO ;FOREIGN POLICY AND DEFENSE ;NATO and Georgia;The August 2008 Russia-Georgia Conflict ;Background: Civil and Ethnic Conflict in Georgia ;Developments in Abkhazia before August 2008 ;Developments in South Ossetia before August 2008 ;The August 2008 Conflict and Ceasefire Accords;Post-Conflict Developments ; The European Union Monitoring Mission ; The Geneva Peace Talks ; The Donors' Conference ; The 2009 Tagliavini Report on the Origins and Outcome of the Conflict ; Georgia's Peaceful Integration Pledges ; Developments in 2011-2013;U.S. RELATIONS ;The U.S.-Georgia Charter ;Obama Administration Initiatives ;U.S. Assistance Overview ;U.S. Humanitarian and Rebuilding Aid after the Russia-Georgia Conflict ;U.S. Security Assistance ;The 2012 National Defense Authorization Act Report on Georgia ;Recent Developments ;Contributions to Counter-Terrorism Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan ;End Notes ;Chapter 7 DEMOCRATIZATION AND INSTABILITY IN UKRAINE, GEORGIA, AND BELARUS* ;FOREWORD;SUMMARY ;INTRODUCTION ;DEMOCRATIZATION/POLITICAL STABILITY/SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ;Democracy and Political Stability;Democracy and Economic Development ;DEMOCRATIZATION IN NUMBERS ;Democratization ;Economic and Social Development ;Political Stability ;Does Public Opinion Matter? ;Citizenship, Law and Rights ;Representative and Accountable Government ;Civil Society and Popular Participation ;POLITICAL CULTURE AS AN IDENTITY CONSTRUCT ;Political Culture ;THREE HISTORICAL NARRATIVES ;Historical Ukraine ;Historical Georgia ;Historical Belarus ;Under the Soviet Union;Independent Ukraine ;Independent Georgia ;Independent Belarus ;CAN DEMOCRACY LEAD TO POLITICAL STABILITY? ;Ukraine;Georgia ;Belarus ;POLITICAL CULTURE MATTERS ;Ukraine ;Georgia ;Belarus ;DEMOCRATIZATION THROUGH ""REGIME MIMICRY"" ;Regime Mimicry in Ukraine ;Regime Mimicry in Georgia ;Regime Mimicry in Belarus ;""INPUTS"" VERSUS ""OUTPUTS"" ;Ukraine ;Georgia ;Belarus ;POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES ;Ukraine ;Georgia ;Belarus ;CONCLUSION ;ANNEX 1. QUESTIONNAIRE ;End Notes ;Chapter 8 GEORGIA'S OCTOBER 2013 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION: OUTCOME AND IMPLICATIONS ;SUMMARY ;BACKGROUND ;THE ELECTORAL CAMPAIGN ;RESULTS AND ASSESSMENTS ;IMPLICATIONS FOR GEORGIA ;IMPLICATIONS FOR U.S. INTERESTS ;En